Фарқият байни намунаҳои "Пахта"

Jump to navigation Jump to search
бот: ислоҳ карда истодааст., replaced: хамчу → ҳамчу
х (вогардони)
х (бот: ислоҳ карда истодааст., replaced: хамчу → ҳамчу)
[[Акс:Feld_mit_reifer_BaumwolleFeld mit reifer Baumwolle.jpeg|thumb|300px|left|Cotton [[plant]]s ]]
[[Акс:CottonPlant.JPG|thumb|300px|Пахтаи тайёр барои ғунучин. Photo courtesy of USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.]]
'''Пахта''' маҳсулоте ки хамчунҳамчун растани меруяд (''[[Gossypium]]'' spp.), муқими дар маҳаллаҳои тропикӣ ва субтропикӣ ҳарду дар [[Ҷаҳони Нав]] ва дар [[Ҷаҳони Кӯҳна]]. Ин маҳсулотро ғалтак мекунанд ва ба материали хеле мулоим ва нарм табдил медиҳанд [[текстил]], ки бештар барои сару либос дар ҳоли ҳозир истифода бурда мешавад. Номи Англисии "пахта" аз калимаи Арабии ''al qutun'', гирифта шудааст.
<br />
== Таьрих ==
[[Акс:Mandeville cotton.jpg|thumb|Cotton plant as imagined and drawn by [[John Mandeville]] in the [[қарни 14ум]]]]
Cotton has been used to make very fine lightweight [[либос]] in areas with tropical climates for millennia. Some authorities claim that it was likely that the [[Миср]]ians had cotton as early as 12,000 BC, and evidence has been found of cotton in [[Мексико|Мексикои]]и caves (cotton cloth and fragments of bloody fibre interwoven with [[пар]]s and [[пар]]) which dated back to approximately 7,000 years ago. There is clear archaeological evidence that people in South America and India domesticated different species of cotton independently thousands of years ago.
The earliest reference to cotton is in [[Таьрихи Ҳундустон|Ҳиндустон]]. Cotton has been grown in India/[[Pakistan]] for more than 6,000 years since the [[Indus Valley civilization#Predecessors|pre-Harappan period]], and it is later referred to in the [[Rig-Veda]], composed in [[3000 BC]]. Two thousand years later, the famous [[Ancient Greece|Greek]] historian [[Herodotus]] wrote about Indian cotton: "There are trees which grow wild there, the fruit of which is a [[wool]] exceeding in beauty and goodness that of [[sheep]]. The Indians make their clothes of this tree wool". (Book iii. 106)
By the end of the 16th century AD, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions in [[Africa]], [[Евразия]] and the [[Америка]].
[[Акс:Cotton_fieldCotton field.jpg|left|thumb|290px|Picking cotton in Oklahoma in the 1890s]]
The Indian cotton processing industry was eclipsed during the [[Britain|British]] colonial rule, as part of the British mercantile policy of deliberate and systematic de-industrialization of India, which forced the closing of Indian factories and processing facilities. The intent of this British policy was to ensure that colonized lands supplied raw materials and that Britain should retain a monopoly on manufacturing. In addition, the invention of the [[spinning jenny]] ([[1764]]) and Arkwright's [[spinning frame]] ([[1769]]) enabled cheap mass-production of cotton cloth in the [[United Kingdom|UK]]. Production capacity was further improved by the invention of the [[cotton gin]] by [[Eli Whitney]] in [[1793]]. As a result of these policies and developments, British traders developed a commercial chain in which raw cotton fibres were sourced initially from their colonies, processed into cotton [[cloth]] in the mills of [[Lancashire]], and then re-exported back on British ships to their captive colonial markets in [[West Africa]], [[India]], and [[China]] (via colonized Shanghai and Hong Kong). Later, when the superiority of the American varieties of cotton was established, owing primarily to the length of the fibers, the British started purchasing cotton from slave plantations in the [[United States]] and the [[Caribbean]]. Due to the enormous quantities of raw cotton required to make cheap bulk exports, British [[industrialist]]s quickly abandoned expensive raw cotton produced in [[India]] in favour of mass-produced cotton from the southern [[United States]], which was much cheaper as it was produced by unpaid [[slavery in the United States|slaves]]. By the mid nineteenth century, "[[King Cotton]]" had become the backbone of the southern American economy, and today, roughly 90% of the world's cotton crop is of the long-staple American variety.
<!-- This image is awkwardly placed here. [[Image:Cotton_pollination_5892.JPG|thumb|left|250px|Gossypium hirsutum: Cotton blossom with bumblebee pollinator, Hemingway, South Carolina]] -->
[[Акс:Cotton picking in India.jpg|thumb|300px|Manual cotton harvesting in India, 2006]]
Today cotton is produced in many parts of the world, including every continent except Antarctica. Cotton plants have been selectively bred so that each plant grows more fiber. In 2002, cotton was grown on 330,000 &nbsp;km² of farmland. 47 billion pounds (21 million t) of raw cotton worth 20 billion USD was grown that year.
The cotton industry relies heavily on chemicals such as fertilizers and insecticides, although a very small number of farmers are moving towards an organic model of production and organic cotton products are now available for purchase at limited locations.
[[Акс:Greene Co Ga1941 Delano.jpg|thumb|left|300px|Hoeing a cotton field to remove weeds, Greene County, Georgia, USA, 1941]]
[[Акс:Baumwoll-Erntemaschine.jpeg|thumb|300px|Offloading freshly harvested cotton into a module builder in Texas. Previously built modules may be seen in the background.]]
Most cotton in the United States, Europe and Australia is harvested mechanically, either by a [[cotton picker]], a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant, or by a [[cotton stripper]] which strips the entire boll off the plant. Cotton strippers are generally used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton and generally used after application of a [[defoliant]] or natural defoliation occurring after a freeze. Cotton is a perennial crop in the tropics and without defoliation or freezing, the plant will continue to grow.
The logistics of cotton harvesting and processing have been improved by the development of the [[cotton module builder]], a machine that compresses harvested cotton into a large block, which is then covered with a tarp and temporarily stored at the edge of the field.
== Egyptian cotton ==
[[Egyptian cotton]] is considered to be one of the best types of cotton, and is produced in various quality levels in long-staple (LS) and extra long-staple (ELS).
<br />
== Истифодаҳо ==
== Old British cotton yarn measures ==
* 1 thread = 54 inches (about 137 &nbsp;cm)
* 1 skein or rap = 80 threads (120 yards or about 109 m)
* 1 hank = 7 skeins (840 yards or about 768 m)
276 109


Менюи гаштан