Роҳнамо:АФБ барои ҳиндӣ ва урду
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- To an English-speaker's ear, [ʈ ʈʰ t̪ t̪ʰ] all sound like /t/, and [ɖ ɖʱ d̪ d̪ʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu-speaker's ear, each is a very different sound. [t̪ d̪] are like the Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth. [t̪ʰ d̪ʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English [[[Алифбои фонетикии байналмилалӣ|θ]] [[Алифбои фонетикии байналмилалӣ|ð]]] (the th and dh sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth mid-palate. [ʈʰ ɖʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d, and [ʈ] is how they hear the English t after an s (as in st).
- Шаблон:IPAblink, Шаблон:IPAblink and intermediate [[[Алифбои фонетикии байналмилалӣ|ʋ]]] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('व्रत', 'ورت', religious fast), are pronounced with [v]; others, such as pakwan ('पकवान', 'پكوان', cooked food), are pronounced with [w].
- /ɛ/ occurs as a conditioned allophone of /ə/ near an /h/ surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa undergoes syncopation, and the resultant is just an /ɛ/ preceding an /h/.
- /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralised to [[[Алифбои фонетикии байналмилалӣ|i]], [[Алифбои фонетикии байналмилалӣ|u]]] at the end of a word.