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This template sets up a {{taxobox}}, a table setting out the Biological classification (taxonomy) for a group of living things with a choice of over 160 parameters. Although the implementation is complicated, it is relatively simple to use. For an example in practice, look at the edit page of "Killer whale" – [1]. Most parameters are optional, so if a particular entry is not relevant for your case, just leave it out. See "All parameters" for a complete list.

This guide has come out of WikiProject Tree of life.

Usage[вироиш]

Note that parameters in this template are case-sensitive.

{{Taxobox
| name               = 
| image              = 
| image_width        = 
| image_alt          = 
| image_caption      = 
| image2             = 
| image2_width       = 
| image2_alt         = 
| image2_caption     = 
| regnum             = [[Plant]]ae (or...)
| divisio            = 
| classis            = 
| ordo               = 
| familia            = 
| genus              = 
| species            = 
| binomial           = 
| binomial_authority = 
| range_map          = <!--optional map - also range_map2, 3 or 4 -->
| range_map_width    = 
| range_map_alt      = 
| range_map_caption  = 
| <!--or 115 other parameters-->
}}

Colors are automatically assigned based on the table below.

Animalia rgb(235,235,210)
Archaeplastida rgb(180,250,180)
Fungi rgb(145,250,250)
Chromalveolata rgb(200,250,80)
Choanozoa rgb(238,235,195)
Rhizaria rgb(240,230,240)
Excavata rgb(250,250,100)
Amoebozoa rgb(170,250,205)
Bacteria rgb(220,235,245)
Archaea rgb(195,245,250)
Viruses rgb(250,250,190)
incertae sedis rgb(250,240,230)
Colours not produced by this template:
Ichnotaxa rgb(215,240,210)
Ootaxa rgb(250,250,220)

Quick start and examples[вироиш]

Animals[вироиш]

Animal species[вироиш]
Шаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversion

Шаблон:Taxobox end[[Гурӯҳ:Animalia аз рӯи алифбо]]

{{Taxobox 
| name               = 
| image              = 
| image_alt          = 
| image_caption      = 
| regnum             = [[Animal]]ia
| phylum             = 
| classis            = 
| ordo               = 
| familia            = 
| genus              = 
| species            = 
| binomial           = 
| binomial_authority = 
}}
Animal higher taxon[вироиш]

Шаблон:ТаксоҚуттӣ

{{ТаксоҚуттӣ 
| шоҳӣ            = [[Ҳайвон]]от
| навъ            = 
| синф           = 
| отряд              = 
| оила           = 
| ген             = 
| ген_кушо   = 
| subdivision_ranks = 
| subdivision       = 
}}

Plants[вироиш]

The majority of plants are angiosperms ("flowering plants"). Wikipedia:Wikiproject Plants consensus is to use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group's APG III classification system for angiosperms. The APG III system does not have formally named divisions or classes, but includes several hierarchically nested, informally named clades. The hierarchy of informally named clades is presented by using parameters such as |unranked_divisio= in place of formal rank parameters. Articles on non-flowering plants (e.g. conifers, ferns) should continue to use formal divisions and classes in the Taxobox.

Flowering plant species[вироиш]
Asian Golden Cat
Шаблон:Taxobox image2
Научная классификация
Царство: Шаблон:Taxobox conversion
Тип: Chordata
Класс: Mammalia
Шаблон:Taxobox ordo: Carnivora
Семейство: Felidae
Род: Catopuma
Вид: C. temminckii
Шаблон:Taxobox sectionНе указано международное название
Вы можете помочь проекту,
поставив latin=название
внутри шаблона taxobox в тексте статьи
Шаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversion

Шаблон:Taxobox end[[Гурӯҳ:Plantae аз рӯи алифбо]]

{{Taxobox 
| name               = 
| image              = 
| image_alt          = 
| image_caption      = 
| regnum             = [[Plant]]ae
| unranked_divisio   = [[Angiosperms]]
| unranked_classis   =
| unranked_ordo      =
| ordo               = 
| familia            = 
| genus              = 
| species            = 
| binomial           = 
| binomial_authority = 
}}
Flowering plant higher taxon[вироиш]
Magnolia virginiana
Шаблон:Taxobox image2
Научная классификация
Царство: Шаблон:Taxobox conversion
Шаблон:Taxobox ordo: Magnoliales
Семейство: Magnoliaceae
Род: Magnolia
Вид: M. virginiana
Шаблон:Taxobox sectionНе указано международное название
Вы можете помочь проекту,
поставив latin=название
внутри шаблона taxobox в тексте статьи
Шаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversion

Шаблон:Taxobox end[[Гурӯҳ:Plantae аз рӯи алифбо]]

{{Taxobox 
| image             = 
| image_alt         = 
| image_caption     = 
| regnum            = [[Plant]]ae
| unranked_divisio  = [[Angiosperms]]
| unranked_classis  =
| unranked_ordo     =
| ordo              = 
| familia           = 
| genus             = 
| genus_authority   = 
| subdivision_ranks = 
| subdivision       = 
}}

Parameters[вироиш]

Name[вироиш]

Provided under this parameter should be the single most common vernacular name when one is in widespread use, or a single current scientific name otherwise.

The name parameter should not be used to incorporate more than one name. It is only a header and not meant to be an inclusive "names" field. One will suffice. Please assess the relevant literature in deciding which.

Color[вироиш]

The color is automatically assigned based on the entry for |regnum=, |virus_group=. |unranked_phylum= or |phylum=, in that order; there is no need to specify it manually. If you do, be sure to use rgb or hsl format; see examples below.

Oaks
Шаблон:Taxobox image2
Научная классификация
Царство: Шаблон:Taxobox conversion
Шаблон:Taxobox ordo: Fagales
Семейство: Fagaceae
Род: Quercus
Шаблон:Taxobox sectionНе указано международное название
Вы можете помочь проекту,
поставив latin=название
внутри шаблона taxobox в тексте статьи
Animalia rgb(235,235,210)
Archaeplastida rgb(180,250,180)
Fungi rgb(145,250,250)
Chromalveolata rgb(200,250,80)
Choanozoa rgb(238,235,195)
Rhizaria rgb(240,230,240)
Excavata rgb(250,250,100)
Amoebozoa rgb(170,250,205)
Bacteria rgb(220,235,245)
Archaea rgb(195,245,250)
Viruses rgb(250,250,190)
incertae sedis rgb(250,240,230)
Colours not produced by this template:
Ichnotaxa rgb(215,240,210)
Ootaxa rgb(250,250,220)

The eukaryote box uses the color "rgb(224, 208, 176)", but since it is split completely into kingdoms other eukaryote groups should not.

Classification[вироиш]

As noted above, the classification section includes some or all of the following:

| regnum  = 
| phylum  = 
| classis = 
| ordo    = 
| familia = 
| genus   = 
| species = 

Each entry corresponds to a containing group, except for the last, which should be the group under consideration. Note the entries use the Latin names for the ranks, to make porting between Wikipedias easier. Thus the above correspond to the kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.

Шаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversion

Шаблон:Taxobox end[[Гурӯҳ:Animalia аз рӯи алифбо]]

Taxoboxes should include all major ranks above the taxon described in the article, plus minor ranks that are important to understanding the classification of the taxon described in the article, or which are discussed in the article. Other minor ranks should be omitted.

For example, in the taxobox for the genus Formica, it's appropriate to include entries for tribe and subfamily, since those are an aid to understanding how Formica relates to other genera in the family Formicidae. But it wouldn't be appropriate to include the superorder Endopterygota, since all genera of ants are in that superorder; it isn't particularly interesting at this level.

Another example is the subfamily Bambusoideae, the bamboos. This subfamily probably should be mentioned in the taxobox of every bamboo species, since it is a major grouping in this context, despite its minor rank.

Minor ranks are included in the same way as major ranks, for example:

| classis    = ...
| subclassis = ...
| superordo  = ...
| ordo       = ...

Note that species and subspecies should be given using the abbreviated forms of their name — e.g. H. sapiens, H. s. sapiens. The epithets should not be given by themselves. The full form of the species or subspecies name is given in the binomial or trinomial section.

See #All parameters for a complete list.

Classification status[вироиш]
With the |classification_status= parameter, it is possible to introduce extra text within parentheses after "Scientific classification". For example,
|classification_status=disputed
will produce "Scientific classification (disputed)". See Veratalpa for a current example where this parameter is used. This parameter should only be used when the "Scientific classification" text would be misleading without it.
Divisions and sections[вироиш]

These ranks have different meanings in zoology and botany.

In botany:

  • Use divisio for division (a rank above class and below kingdom)
  • Use sectio for section (a rank above species and below genus)

Note: Certain very large genera, e.g. Rhododendron include subsections

In zoology:

  • Use zoodivisio for division (a rank above family and below order)
  • Use zoosectio for section (a rank above family and below order)
Unranked taxa[вироиш]

For each major taxon from family to phylum, you can add an unranked entry to the taxobox. The entry unranked_X appears above rank X, for example unranked_superfamilia appears above family and superfamily and below order, suborder, infraorder, etc.:

| ordo                  = 
| unranked_superfamilia = 
| familia               = 

For animals and non-flowering plants, use unranked taxa sparingly. The need to include unranked taxa generally indicates that you are following phylogenetic nomenclature. It is usually better to abbreviate the classification to the major ranks and then discuss the classification in more detail in the article.

Unranked taxa of flowering plants[вироиш]

Flowering plants (angiosperms) make frequent use of unranked taxa. The APG III system of classification used for flowering plants on Wikipedia does not have formally named ranks above order - e.g. divisions, classes, subclasses - but includes several hierarchically nested, informally named and unranked clades. For flowering plants the taxobox should include |unranked_divisio=Angiosperms in place of |divisio=, |unranked_classis= in place of |classis=, and possibly also |unranked_subclassis= in place of |subclassis=. Flowering plant taxoboxes may often include three to four informal hierarchical groups above the rank of order, making the use of |unranked_ordo= necessary, which sorts itself just above |ordo= where a formally named order is displayed. The unranked parameters only include ranks in their parameter names, such as "unranked_divisio" to allow the editor to place content hierarchically; no approximation of rank is intended by the use of these parameter names. For flowering plant articles using the APG III system of classification, the regular parameters including |divisio=, |classis=, and |subclassis= should not be used or it will display between these unranked APG III clades.

To comply with #Classification above and its advice on the inclusion of major ranks, the following are considered major ranks in APG III and currently included in the appropriate flowering plant taxoboxes:

Note: The rosids contain two clades, the fabids (also known as eurosids I) and malvids (also known as eurosids II), and the asterids contain two further clades, the lamiids (euasterids I) and campanulids (euasterids II). These are considered to be minor ranks and are only to be displayed on the articles on orders or families they immediately contain.

A taxobox for a flowering plant will thus generally include the following parameters:

| regnum             = [[Plant]]ae
| unranked_divisio   = [[Angiosperms]]
| unranked_classis   =
| unranked_ordo      =
| ordo               = 
Viruses[вироиш]

Viruses follow a slightly different system. They are not placed in taxa above the rank of order, and instead are treated in seven groups based on the type of nucleic acid they contain, referred to by the Roman numerals I to VII. These can be included in the taxobox using the virus_group argument. This also changes the link from scientific to virus classification, so it should not appear on boxes for non-viruses, even if it is left blank.

| virus_group = IV

Bold/italic markup[вироиш]

Italicization must be done manually in all parameters. If the entry for genus or species (with manually added italics) matches the page title,[note 1] then the name of the taxobox and the title of the page will be italicized. Note that if the |name= parameter is used the page title will not be automatically italicized. The taxobox's name will be set to exactly what is specified in |name= – italics must be specified manually in this case.

Genus, species, and subspecies should be italicized whenever used, as is the biological standard. For instance, we talk about the genus Homo, the species Homo sapiens, and the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens.

  • In botany, it is important to include the rank for taxa below species. The rank is not italicized, e.g. Genus species subsp. subspecies var. variety.
  • Some bacteria that have been characterized but not formally named are given Candidatus names. These should be written in the form Candidatus Genus species, rather than italicized normally.

Higher taxa like families may or may not be italicized in different publications. The prevalent standard for Wikipedia is not to italicize them, except in the case of viruses and other infectious particles.

Bolding is used to indicate the subject of the article. The name, binomial, and trinomial arguments bold automatically. In the placement section – regnum through species – the final taxon should be bolded, as well as any higher groups that only include the final taxon. See green sulfur bacteria for an example.

Subdivisions[вироиш]

Red wood ant
Шаблон:Taxobox image2
Научная классификация
Царство: Шаблон:Taxobox conversion
Тип: Arthropoda
Класс: Insecta
Шаблон:Taxobox ordo: Hymenoptera
Семейство: Formicidae
Подсемейство: Formicinae
Триба: Formicini
Род: Formica
Вид: F. rufa
Шаблон:Taxobox sectionНе указано международное название
Вы можете помочь проекту,
поставив latin=название
внутри шаблона taxobox в тексте статьи
Шаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversion

Шаблон:Taxobox end[[Гурӯҳ:Plantae аз рӯи алифбо]] Groups above the rank of species (and even species if there are several notable subspecies) should usually include a list of subgroups. Use the subdivision argument for the list, separating elements by <br> tags, and the subdivision_ranks argument to say what rank the subgroups have. For instance, for families in an order:

| subdivision_ranks = Families
| subdivision       =
[[Family1]]<br />
[[Family2]]<br />
[[Family3]]

The templates Template:Species list and Template:Taxon list (and their variants) can help to generate these lists.

For lists with more than a few subgroups, the list can be bracketed with {{div col}} and {{div col end}}, which will split the list into two columns (see Nettle example at right). In cases where a list would make the taxobox too long, or where the classification is too variable to allow a brief summary, the list should be replaced with a comment like "See text" or the subdivision section should be omitted. As a rule of thumb, when there are more than 100 subgroups the list should be in a separate article.

In cases where the classification is variable, a description like "Typical orders" or "Notable orders" may be used.

In cases where the ranks are uncertain, a description like "Subgroups" or "Taxa" may be preferable. Sometimes it is convenient to represent more than one level of classification in the list. In that case the lower level groups are moved over to the right by prefixing them with &nbsp; characters – usually three for the first level of indentation, and then one to three more for each subsequent level. Major grades may also be represented by bolded headers, as on plant and heterokont. Remember, though, these should mainly be done when the intermediate rank subgroups are not worthy of separate articles; taxoboxes are too small to include too much duplicate information.

Conservation status[вироиш]

Conservation status may optionally be included; you can search the IUCN's database of threatened species to find the conservation status of many organisms. It is included via the status argument, which takes a code or template. It is not appropriate for prehistoric organisms – the fossil_range parameter may be a more sensible option.

|status = code
|status_system = classification system (see below)) – required
|status_ref = <ref>...</ref> – optional
|extinct = year of extinction – optional (only use if |status=EX and year of extinction is known)

Use the above syntax, choosing one of the status codes from the code list below. The code may be all upper or lower case, but the cases used in the table are preferred.

IUCN Red List, ver. 3.1 (2001)
IUCN Red List, ver. 2.3 (1994)
Australia's EPBC Act
New Zealand Threat Classification System

The following status codes are available (the third column shows the category that is automatically added to the article):

Nettle
Шаблон:Taxobox image2
Научная классификация
Царство: Шаблон:Taxobox conversion
Шаблон:Taxobox ordo: Rosales
Семейство: Urticaceae
Род: Urtica
Шаблон:Taxobox sectionНе указано международное название
Вы можете помочь проекту,
поставив latin=название
внутри шаблона taxobox в тексте статьи
Status (as shown in taxobox) Code Category assigned
Secure secure[IUCN 1]
Domesticated DOM[IUCN 1] Domesticated animals
Least Concern (LC) LC
Least Concern (LR/lc) LR/lc
Near Threatened (NT) NT
Near Threatened (LC/nt) LR/nt
Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) LR/cd
Vulnerable (VU) VU
Endangered (EN) EN Endangered species
Critically Endangered CR Critically endangered species
Critically Endangered (CR), possibly extinct PE Critically endangered species
Extinct in the wild (EW) EW Species extinct in the wild
Extinct EX
Data deficient (DD) DD
Not evaluated (NE) NE
Fossil fossil[IUCN 1][IUCN 2]
Prehistoric pre[IUCN 1]
See text See text[IUCN 1]
Lower Risk LR[IUCN 1][IUCN 3]
Notes
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 This is not a valid IUCN Red List category
  2. |status=fossil is deprecated in favour of |fossil_range= {{fossil range}} (see the #Fossil range section below).
  3. LR is deprecated; use LR/lc or LR/nt or LR/cd instead.
System[вироиш]

The criteria used by the IUCN should also be specified: (case-sensitive)

 | status_system = iucn3.1
 or
 | status_system = iucn2.3 <!-- deprecated for new boxes, although some taxoboxes still exist and are supported for this version -->

This parameter is required in order to display the proper conservation status graphic. Failure to use this parameter will result in no graphic appearing.

Other systems are listed at Wikipedia:Conservation status.

Referencing conservation status[вироиш]

To add a reference for the status, use

|status_ref=<ref>{{IUCN2012.2|...}}</ref>

See {{IUCN2012.2}} or {{IUCN}} for the arguments you need to supply to that template. And don't forget that <ref></ref> requires a corresponding <references/> in the References section.

Fossil range[вироиш]

The stratigraphic range for groups known as fossils may also be included, using the fossil_range argument. For instance, for a group known from the Cambrian to the Permian:

 |fossil_range = [[Cambrian]]–[[Permian]]

You may wish to add a diagrammatic representation of the fossil range (as shown below), which can be created using the {{Fossil range}} template, for example:

  | fossil_range = {{fossil range|Cambrian|Permian}}

or

  | fossil_range = {{fossil range|542|250}} [[Cambrian]]–[[Permian]]

For extant taxa that continue into the present day, the ending period should be set to "Recent" or as "Holocene" for Late Quaternary extinctions such as the Moa, and the current status should be indicated using the status argument.

For groups that only existed during a single period, simply list it without giving a range: e.g.:

 | fossil_range = {{fossil range|Silurian}} 

Images[вироиш]

An image can be included using the argument image. It is highly recommended that an image be provided if one is available. Do not include the "File:" part of the image file name!

If an image is included, alt text should be provided using image_alt. Alt text should not repeat the caption; instead, it should describe the image to someone who can't see it (see WP:ALT).

A caption can be provided using image_caption. A caption need not be provided if it would just repeat the title of the article. It should be provided if it can convey any additional information about the image, such as the sex or life stage of the individual, the location where the picture was taken, the artist (if an engraving or other illustration), or (for higher taxa) the particular species depicted.

| image         = Sweetbay1082.jpg
| image_alt     = White flower surrounded by long green leaves
| image_caption = ''Magnolia virginiana''

By default, the image width is determined by users' default thumb size preferences. In general, it is recommended that these preferences be honoured. In some cases, however, it may be desirable to overrule the default size; this can be achieved by use of the image_width parameter. Note that the Manual of Style recommends that if the default thumb size of a lead image is to be overruled, it should be made at least 300px wide, so that users whose default thumb size is 300px do not end up with a lead image smaller than the other images in the article.

| image         = Sweetbay1082.jpg
| image_alt     = White flower surrounded by long green leaves
| image_caption = ''Magnolia virginiana''
| image_width   = 320px

Long or complex image captions, which should rarely be necessary, look better left-aligned. This can be achieved using |image_caption_align=left.

A second image may be added by use of the image2, image2_alt, image2_caption and image2_width arguments. Use this sparingly, and only when the article is long enough, and when it makes sense to include the second image here and not later in the article. Camel is a good example (a genus with two well-known representatives). A second image may also be useful for species that display sexual dimorphism so that both a male and female representative could be shown, e.g. Northern Cardinal.

Authorities[вироиш]

Generally, an authority should be given only for the taxa covered by the article. Higher groups which only include the article subject should also list authorities unless those are the same as for the taxa in question. In the case of species (or subspecies) the authority may be given in the binomial (or trinomial) section. Otherwise authorities may be listed in the placement section. For instance, for an order:

| ordo = 
| ordo_authority = 

The following examples illustrate the different conventions for names, dates, and punctuations in the different kingdoms.

  • Animalia
    • Original name valid: Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758
    • Organism reclassified: Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) (originally Felis leo)
  • Plantae
    • Original name valid: Magnolia virginiana L.
    • Organism reclassified: Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich. (originally Orchis pyramidalis)
  • Bacteria
    • Original name valid: Vibrio cholerae R. Koch 1883
    • Organism reclassified: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 (originally Micrococcus pneumoniae)
    • Old name revived: Salmonella enterica (ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952) Le Minor & Popoff 1987

Authorities in scientific names are also abbreviated according to different standards for plants and animals. To decipher standard abbreviations, see

For more information refer to the article on binomial nomenclature.

Diversity[вироиш]

In higher taxa, and taxa where the subdivision option does not indicate number of species, the diversity argument may be used. This needs to be accompanied by diversity_link which links to an appropriate page, usually a List of ... species page. See, for example, Banksia: the subdivision lists only two subgenera, so the diversity option is used to specify the number of species.

| diversity_link = List of Quercus species
| diversity = c. 120 species

It is not a good idea to be too precise about the number of species. New species are still being regularly described in many groups. Moreover, changing systematic treatment is liable to alter the species number even in well-known genera. Rounding off the species number and denoting this as approximate value will help decreasing maintenance.

Use the diversity_ref argument to give references for the number of species, for example:

|diversity_ref = <ref>Hershler and Longley, 1986, p. 127</ref>

Range maps[вироиш]

A range map may be included at the end of the taxobox. This uses the range_map, range_map_width, range_map_alt, and range_map_caption arguments, in the same manner as an image. See leopard (land animal), Northern Flicker (non-migratory bird), Lesser Spotted Eagle (migratory bird) and orca (water animal) for examples.

| range_map         = Map.jpg
| range_map_width   = 240px
| range_map_alt     = Map showing ...
| range_map_caption = Range of ...

You can generate maps using an appropriate blank map such as Image:BlankMap-World-noborders.png. Do not make the distribution map too large (a width of 300 to 400 should be sufficient, the purpose of the map being a rough global overview; more detailed maps can always go to the article body) and add the map to Гурӯҳ:Habitat maps, or, preferably, if you upload the map to Commons, to commons:Гурӯҳ:Animal distribution maps.

Synonyms[вироиш]

Where a species has synonyms, the synonyms argument may be used. This should be a list of synonyms separated by <br/> tags.

| synonyms = 
''species1'' <small>Authority1</small><br/>
''species2'' <small>Authority2</small>

If the synonyms are too long to fit in a single line, you may also use a bulleted list:

| synonyms = 
*''species1''<br/><small>Authority1</small>
*''species2''<br/><small>Authority2</small>

The first format is preferred for clarity.

Please note: style element <small> is not recommended in Wikipedia:WikiProject Check Wikipedia#HTML text style element .3Csmall.3E, see discussion Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Check Wikipedia#Small style element.

Nomenclator Zoologicus has data for all but the most recently established animal genera. This may be hard to understand for non-specialists, but it is a comprehensive source for the authorship of genus names, both valid ones and junior synonyms. Sometimes one will note that a new name has been established because the older, original name was "preoccupied". This means it has already been established for another taxon of the same rank in the same kingdom before – even if that name is now a synonym too. Taxa that preoccupy a name can be linked in the Synonyms section, such as Stenorhynchus here.

Use |synonyms_ref= to give references for the synonym list, for example:

|synonyms_ref = <ref>Smith and Jones, 2009, p. 5</ref>

Type species[вироиш]

When the type species of a genus (or larger grouping) is known, the |type_species= and |type_species_authority= can be used. For animal entries, the type species should be the original binomial name of the type species, but linked to its current article, and the authority should be plain (no parenthesis). See Mirza for a type species example.

| type_species           = the original name of the species that was initially used to describe the genus, without regard to its present-day nomenclature
| type_species_authority =

This follows ICZN Recommendation 67B; be aware that this means the taxon used by the genus' original author – even if it is now invalid, e.g. a junior synonym. Ideally, it should only be used if the genus' original description can be verified first-hand. As per the following example given by the ICZN:

Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775, one of the nominal species originally included in the decapod crustacean genus Homarus Weber, 1795, was subsequently designated by Fowler (1912) as the type species of Homarus. The type species is, and should be cited as, Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775. Astacus marinus Fabricius is currently synonymized with Cancer gammarus Linnaeus, 1758, but the latter is not the type species of Homarus and should not be cited as such. If mention of the type species is required it should be made in some such manner as "Type species Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775, a junior synonym of Cancer gammarus Linnaeus, 1758"; or "Type species Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775, now regarded as a synonym of Homarus gammarus (Linnaeus, 1758)".

If you do not completely understand what this all means, please do not use this parameter. Instead, if possible denote the type species in the species listing, for example with a

<small>([[type species]])</small>

after the species' (currently valid) name.

Italic page titles[вироиш]

If the value of |genus=, |species=, or |binomial= exactly matches the title of the page, and |name= is unspecified, the taxobox and page title will be italicized automatically.[note 2] If necessary, it is also possible to force the page title to display in italics using the {{Italic title}} template.

If the |name= parameter is present, then the taxobox will display whatever is in |name=; the page title will NOT be italicized unless {{italic title}} is used.

Complete blank template[вироиш]

This section gives all parameters in the order that they will appear in the taxobox. No taxobox should use all of these. Keep it short! Note that parameters in this template are case-sensitive.

Шаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversionШаблон:Taxobox conversion

Шаблон:Taxobox end

{{Taxobox
| color                           = 
| name                            = 
| status                          = 
| status_system                   = 
| status_ref                      = 
| fossil_range                    = 
| image                           = 
| image_width                     = 
| image_alt                       = 
| image_caption                   = 
| image_caption_align             =
| image2                          = 
| image2_width                    = 
| image2_alt                      = 
| image2_caption                  = 
| classification_status           = 
| virus_group                     = 
| unranked_superdomain            = 
| unranked_superdomain_authority  = 
| superdomain                     = 
| superdomain_authority           = 
| domain                          = 
| domain_authority                = 
| superregnum                     = 
| superregnum_authority           = 
| unranked_regnum                 = 
| unranked_regnum_authority       = 
| regnum                          = 
| regnum_authority                = 
| subregnum                       = 
| subregnum_authority             = 
| superdivisio                    = 
| superdivisio_authority          = 
| superphylum                     = 
| superphylum_authority           = 
| unranked_divisio                = 
| unranked_divisio_authority      =
| divisio                         = 
| divisio_authority               = 
| unranked_phylum                 = 
| unranked_phylum_authority       = 
| phylum                          = 
| phylum_authority                =
| subdivisio                      = 
| subdivisio_authority            = 
| subphylum                       = 
| subphylum_authority             = 
| infraphylum                     = 
| infraphylum_authority           = 
| microphylum                     = 
| microphylum_authority           = 
| nanophylum                      = 
| nanophylum_authority            = 
| superclassis                    = 
| superclassis_authority          = 
| unranked_classis                = 
| unranked_classis_authority      = 
| classis                         = 
| classis_authority               = 
| unranked_subclassis             = 
| unranked_subclassis_authority   = 
| subclassis                      = 
| subclassis_authority            = 
| unranked_infraclassis           = 
| unranked_infraclassis_authority = 
| infraclassis                    = 
| infraclassis_authority          = 
| magnordo                        = 
| magnordo_authority              = 
| superordo                       = 
| superordo_authority             = 
| unranked_ordo                   = 
| unranked_ordo_authority         = 
| ordo                            = 
| ordo_authority                  = 
| subordo                         = 
| subordo_authority               = 
| infraordo                       = 
| infraordo_authority             = 
| parvordo                        = 
| parvordo_authority              = 
| zoodivisio                      = 
| zoodivisio_authority            = 
| zoosectio                       = 
| zoosectio_authority             = 
| zoosubsectio                    = 
| zoosubsectio_authority          = 
| unranked_superfamilia           = 
| unranked_superfamilia_authority = 
| superfamilia                    = 
| superfamilia_authority          = 
| familia                         = 
| familia_authority               = 
| subfamilia                      = 
| subfamilia_authority            = 
| supertribus                     = 
| supertribus_authority           = 
| unranked_tribus                 = 
| unranked_tribus_authority       = 
| tribus                          = 
| tribus_authority                = 
| subtribus                       = 
| subtribus_authority             = 
| alliance                        = 
| alliance_authority              = 
| unranked_genus                  = 
| unranked_genus_authority        = 
| genus                           = 
| genus_authority                 = 
| subgenus                        = 
| subgenus_authority              = 
| sectio                          = 
| sectio_authority                = 
| subsectio                       = 
| subsectio_authority             = 
| series                          = 
| series_authority                = 
| subseries                       = 
| subseries_authority             = 
| species_group                   = 
| species_group_authority         = 
| species_subgroup                = 
| species_subgroup_authority      = 
| species_complex                 = 
| species_complex_authority       = 
| species                         = 
| species_authority               = 
| subspecies                      = 
| subspecies_authority            = 
| variety                         = 
| variety_authority               = 
| forma                           = 
| forma_authority                 = 
| diversity_ref                   = 
| diversity                       = 
| diversity_link                  = 
| binomial                        = 
| binomial_authority              = 
| trinomial                       = 
| trinomial_authority             = 
| type_species                    = 
| type_species_authority          = 
| subdivision                     = 
| subdivision_ranks               = 
| type_strain                     = 
| range_map                       = 
| range_map_width                 = 
| range_map_alt                   = 
| range_map_caption               = 
| binomial2                       = 
| binomial2_authority             = 
| range_map2                      = 
| range_map2_width                = 
| range_map2_alt                  = 
| range_map2_caption              = 
| binomial3                       = 
| binomial3_authority             = 
| range_map3                      = 
| range_map3_width                = 
| range_map3_alt                  = 
| range_map3_caption              = 
| binomial4                       = 
| binomial4_authority             = 
| range_map4                      = 
| range_map4_width                = 
| range_map4_alt                  = 
| range_map4_caption              = 
| synonyms_ref                    = 
| synonyms                        = 
}}

All parameters[вироиш]

The full list of parameters is illustrated inside the infobox above, in the "Complete blank template".

name
Шаблон:Taxobox image2
Научная классификация
Надцарство: superregnum
Царство: Шаблон:Taxobox conversion
Подцарство: subregnum
Надтип: superphylum
Тип: phylum
Подтип: subphylum
Надотдел: superdivisio
Отдел: divisio
Подотдел: subdivisio
Надкласс: superclassis
Класс: classis
Подкласс: subclassis
Инфракласс: infraclassis
Шаблон:Taxobox superordo: superordo
Шаблон:Taxobox ordo: ordo
Шаблон:Taxobox subordo: subordo
Шаблон:Taxobox infraordo: infraordo
Надсемейство: superfamilia
Семейство: familia
Подсемейство: subfamilia
Триба: tribus
Подтриба: subtribus
Род: genus
Подрод: subgenus
Секция: sectio
Вид: species
Подвид: subspecies
Шаблон:Taxobox sectionНе указано международное название
Вы можете помочь проекту,
поставив latin=название
внутри шаблона taxobox в тексте статьи
color - typical color code
name - name defaults to {{PAGENAME}}
status - conservation status code
status_system - status-system type
status_ref - status reference
regnum - (standard) kingdom name
phylum - (standard) phylum name
classis - (standard) class name
ordo - (standard) order name
familia - (standard) family name
genus - (standard) genus name
species - (standard) species name
fossil_range - (as shown at top of box)
image - (as shown in box)
image_width - (as shown in box)
image_alt - (as shown in box)
image_caption - (as shown in box)
image2 - (as shown in box)
image2_width - (as shown in box)
image2_alt - (as shown in box)
image2_caption - (as shown in box)
classification_status - (as shown in box)
virus_group - (as shown in box)
superdomain - (as shown in box)
superdomain_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_superdomain - (as shown in box)
unranked_superdomain_ authority - (as shown in box)
domain - (as shown in box)
domain_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_regnum - (as shown in box)
unranked_regnum_ authority - (as shown in box)
superregnum - (as shown in box)
superregnum_authority - (as shown in box)
regnum_authority - (as shown in box)
subregnum - (as shown in box)
subregnum_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_phylum - (as shown in box)
unranked_phylum_ authority - (as shown in box)
superdivisio - (as shown in box)
superdivisio_authority - (as shown in box)
superphylum - (as shown in box)
superphylum_authority - (as shown in box)
divisio - (as shown in box)
divisio_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_divisio - (as shown in box)
unranked_divisio_ authority - (as shown in box)
phylum_authority - (as shown in box)
subdivisio - (as shown in box)
subdivisio_authority - (as shown in box)
subphylum - (as shown in box)
subphylum_authority - (as shown in box)
infraphylum - (as shown in box)
infraphylum_authority - (as shown in box)
microphylum - (as shown in box)
microphylum_authority - (as shown in box)
nanophylum - (as shown in box)
nanophylum_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_classis - (as shown in box)
unranked_classis_ authority - (as shown in box)
superclassis - (as shown in box)
superclassis_authority - (as shown in box)
classis_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_subclassis - (as shown in box)
unranked_subclassis_ authority - (as shown in box)
subclassis - (as shown in box)
subclassis_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_infraclassis - (as shown in box)
unranked_infraclassis_ authority - (as shown in box)
infraclassis - (as shown in box)
infraclassis_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_ordo - (as shown in box)
unranked_ordo_authority - (as shown in box)
magnordo - (as shown in box)
magnordo_authority - (as shown in box)
superordo - (as shown in box)
superordo_authority - (as shown in box)
ordo_authority - (as shown in box)
subordo - (as shown in box)
subordo_authority - (as shown in box)
infraordo - (as shown in box)
infraordo_authority - (as shown in box)
parvordo - (as shown in box)
parvordo_authority - (as shown in box)
zoodivisio - (as shown in box)
zoodivisio_authority - (as shown in box)
zoosectio - (as shown in box)
zoosectio_authority - (as shown in box)
zoosubsectio - (as shown in box)
zoosubsectio_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_superfamilia - (as shown in box)
unranked_superfamilia_ authority - (as shown in box)
superfamilia - (as shown in box)
superfamilia_authority - (as shown in box)
familia_authority - (as shown in box)
subfamilia - (as shown in box)
subfamilia_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_tribus - (as shown in box)
unranked_tribus_ authority - (as shown in box)
supertribus - (as shown in box)
supertribus_authority - (as shown in box)
tribus - (as shown in box)
tribus_authority - (as shown in box)
subtribus - (as shown in box)
subtribus_authority - (as shown in box)
alliance - (as shown in box)
alliance_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_genus - (as shown in box)
unranked_genus_ authority - (as shown in box)
genus_authority - (as shown in box)
subgenus - (as shown in box)
subgenus_authority - (as shown in box)
sectio - (as shown in box)
sectio_authority - (as shown in box)
subsectio - (as shown in box)
subsectio_authority - (as shown in box)
series - (as shown in box)
series_authority - (as shown in box)
subseries - (as shown in box)
subseries_authority - (as shown in box)
species_group - (as shown in box)
species_group_authority - (as shown in box)
species_subgroup - (as shown in box)
species_subgroup_ authority - (as shown in box)
species_complex - (as shown in box)
species_complex_ authority - (as shown in box)
species_authority - (as shown in box)
subspecies - (as shown in box)
subspecies_authority - (as shown in box)
variety - (as shown in box)
variety_authority - (as shown in box)
forma - (as shown in box)
forma_authority - (as shown in box)
diversity_ref - (as shown in box)
diversity - (as shown in box)
diversity_link - (as shown in box)
binomial - (as shown in box)
binomial_authority - (as shown in box)
trinomial - (as shown in box)
trinomial_authority - (as shown in box)
type_species - (as shown in box)
type_species_authority - (as shown in box)
subdivision - (as shown in box)
subdivision_ranks - (as shown in box)
type_strain - (as shown in box)
range_map - 1st map, bottom of box
range_map_width - 1st map width as 200px
range_map_alt - 1st map ALT= text
range_map_caption - 1st caption, under picture
binomial2 - (as shown in box)
binomial2_authority - (as shown in box)
range_map2 - 2nd map in box
range_map2_width - 2nd map width as 200px
range_map2_alt - 2nd map ALT= text
range_map2_caption - 2nd map caption
binomial3 - (as shown in box)
binomial3_authority - (as shown in box)
range_map3 - 3rd map in box
range_map3_width - 3rd map width as 200px
range_map3_alt - 3rd map ALT= text
range_map3_caption - 3rd maq caption
binomial4 - (as shown in box)
binomial4_authority - (as shown in box)
range_map4 - 4th map in box
range_map4_width - 4th map width as 200px
range_map4_alt - 4th map ALT= text
range_map4_caption - 4th map caption
synonyms_ref - reference for synonyms
synonyms - (as at bottom of box)

Articles lacking taxoboxes[вироиш]

For articles lacking taxoboxes, add Template:Missing-taxobox to the talk page. This may be done by typing {{Missing-taxobox}} or {{needtaxobox}} at the top of the talk page.

Microformat[вироиш]

This template emits a "species" (or "biota") microformat.

The microformat is created by the use of class="biota", and classes for individual taxonomic ranks, such as class="domain" in a span around {{{domain}}} (full list). Please do not change or remove those classes other than as part of development of the microformat. For background information, see microformats on Wikipedia and the microformat specification.

Template Data[вироиш]

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools.

Горилла

An infobox for plants, animals and other biological taxa

Template parameters

ParameterDescriptionTypeStatus
Namename

For plants, see [[Wikipedia:Naming conventions (flora)]]. For all other living things, the name should be the most common vernacular name, when one is in widespread use, and a scientific name otherwise.

Stringrequired
Imageimage

An image to use, do not include the 'File:' part of the image file name.

Stringoptional
Image Widthimage_widthimage width

Width to display the image at. Should not normally be set. e.g. 320px

Stringoptional
Image alt textimage_altimage alt

Alt text which describes the image to someone who can't see it

Stringoptional
Image captionimage_captionimage caption

Caption displayed under the image

Stringrequired
Image caption alignmentimage_caption_alignimage caption alignment

Alignment of the caption displayed under the image, e.g. left. Should not normally be set.

Stringoptional
Kingdomregnum

Kingdom: [[Animal]]ia, [[Plant]]ae, [[Fungi]], other taxa may want to use domain or other ranks instead

Stringoptional
Divisiondivisio

Division in botany, e.g. [[Bryophyta]]. Not for flowering plants using the APG III system

Stringoptional
Phylumphylum

Phylum in zoology, eg [[Chordata]] for vertebrates

Stringoptional
Classclassis

Class/classis taxonomic rank

Stringoptional
Orderordo

Order/ordo taxonomic rank

Stringoptional
Familyfamilia

Family/familia taxonomic rank

Stringoptional
Genusgenus

Genus taxonomic rank, in italics, e.g. ''[[Homo]]''

Stringoptional
Speciesspecies

Species taxonomic rank. Should be given in abbreviated forms and in italics, e.g. ''H. sapiens''.

Stringoptional
Binomialbinomial

Full binomial name of taxa, In full form with italics, e.g. ''Salix alba'' var. ''caerulea''

Stringoptional
Binomial authoritybinomial_authoritybinomial authority

Binomial authority using appropriate conventions, eg [[Carl Linnaeus|L.]] (for plants), [[Carl Linnaeus|Linnaeus]], 1761 (for animals)

Stringoptional
Range maprange_maprange map

Map of range

Stringoptional
Range map widthrange_map_widthrange map width

Width to display range map. Should not normally be set. e.g. 320px

Stringoptional
Range map alt textrange_map_altrange map alt

Alt text describing the range in words

Stringoptional
Range map captionrange_map_captionrange map caption

Caption/key for the range map

Stringoptional
Conservation statusstatus

The conservation status code: 'secure', domesticated 'DOM', Least Concern 'LC', Lower Risk—Least Concern 'LR/lc', Near Threatened 'NT', Lower Risk—Near Threatened 'LR/nt', Lower Risk—Conservation Dependent 'LR/cd', Vulnerable 'VU', Endangered 'EN', Critically Endangered 'CR', Possibly Extinct 'PE', Extinct in the wild 'EW', Extinct 'EX', Data deficient 'DD', Not evaluated 'NE',Fossil 'fossil', Prehistoric 'pre', 'See text', Lower Risk 'LR'

Stringoptional
Conservation status systemstatus_systemstatus system

System used for Conservation status: 'iucn3.1', 'iucn2.3', 'EPBC' etc. Required if status given.

Stringoptional
Status referencestatus_refstatus ref

Reference for status <ref>{{IUCN2012.2|...}}</ref>

Stringoptional
Year of extinctionextinct

Year of extinction, if known

Stringoptional
Fossil rangefossil_rangefossil range

The stratigraphic range for groups known as fossils. E.g. [[Cambrian]]–[[Permian]] or {{fossil range|Cambrian|Permian}} to give a chart. Use 'Recent' for extant taxa and 'Holocene' for for Late Quaternary extinctions.

Stringoptional
virus groupvirus_groupvirus group

Viruses not placed in taxa above the rank of order, instead a virus group is used, given by a Roman numeral from I to VII

Stringoptional
Unranked superdomainunranked_superdomainunranked superdomain

For each major taxon you can add an unranked entry to the taxobox. The entry unranked_X appears above rank X

Stringoptional
Superdomainsuperdomain

This and other minor ranks should only be used when they are important to understanding the classification of the taxon described in the article

Stringoptional
Superdomain Authoritysuperdomain_authoritysuperdomain authority

The authority used for this rank. Every rank has a rank_authority field which are not currently listed

Stringoptional
Domaindomain

Domain for Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya

Stringoptional
Superkingdomsuperregnum

Stringoptional
unranked kingdomunranked_regnumunranked regnum

Stringoptional
Subkingdomsubregnum

Stringoptional
Superdivisionsuperdivisio

Stringoptional
Superphylumsuperphylum

Stringoptional
Unranked divisionunranked_divisiounranked divisio

For flowering plants using the APG III system this should be set to [[Angiosperms]] rather than using division/divisio

Stringoptional
Unranked phylumunranked_phylumunranked phylum

Stringoptional
subphylumsubphylum

Stringoptional
Infraphyluminfraphylum

Stringoptional
microphylummicrophylum

Stringoptional
nanophylumnanophylum

Stringoptional
superclassissuperclassis

Stringoptional
Unranked classunranked_classisunranked classis

For flowering plants using the APG III system this should be used rather than class/classis

Stringoptional
unranked subclassisunranked_subclassisunranked subclassis

Stringoptional
subclassissubclassis

Stringoptional
unranked infraclassisunranked_infraclassisunranked infraclassis

Stringoptional
infraclassisinfraclassis

Stringoptional
magnordomagnordo

Stringoptional
superordosuperordo

Stringoptional
Unranked orderunranked_ordounranked ordo

Generally used for flowering plants using the APG III system

Stringoptional
subordosubordo

Stringoptional
infraordoinfraordo

Stringoptional
parvordoparvordo

Stringoptional
zoodivisionzoodivisio

Used in zoology, a different rank to the division used in botany.

Stringoptional
zoosectionzoosectio

Used in zoology, a different rank to the section used in botany.

Stringoptional
zoosubsectionzoosubsectio

Used in zoology, a different rank to the subsection used in botany.

Stringoptional
Unranked Superfamilyunranked_superfamiliaunranked superfamilia

Stringoptional
Superfamilysuperfamilia

Stringoptional
Subfamilysubfamilia

Stringoptional
supertribussupertribus

Stringoptional
unranked tribeunranked_tribusunranked tribus

Stringoptional
tribetribus

Stringoptional
subtribesubtribus

Stringoptional
alliancealliance

Stringoptional
Unranked genusunranked_genusunranked genus

Stringoptional
Subgenussubgenus

Stringoptional
Sectionsectio

Used in botany, use zoosectio in zoology

Stringoptional
Subsectionsubsectio

Used in botany, use zoosubsectio in zoology

Stringoptional
Seriesseries

Stringoptional
Subseriessubseries

Stringoptional
Species groupspecies_groupspecies group

Stringoptional
species subgroupspecies_subgroupspecies subgroup

Stringoptional
species complexspecies_complexspecies complex

Stringoptional
subspeciessubspecies

Stringoptional
varietyvariety

Stringoptional
formforma

Used in botany, not in zoology

Stringoptional
trinomialtrinomial

The full trinomial name for subspecies, it should generally be in italics.

Stringoptional
trinomial authoritytrinomial_authoritytrinomial authority

The authority for a trinomial.

Stringoptional
Synonymssynonyms

A list of synonyms for a species, e.g. ''species1'' <small>Authority1</small><br/> ''species2'' <small>Authority2</small>

Stringoptional
Synonyms refsynonyms_refsynonyms ref

References for the synonym lists, e.g.<ref>Smith and Jones, 2009, p. 5</ref>

Stringoptional
Type speciestype_speciestype species

The original name of the species that was initially used to describe the genus, without regard to its present-day nomenclature.

Stringoptional
Type species authoritytype_species_authoritytype species authority

Authority for the type species, don't use parenthesis.

Stringoptional
Classification statusclassification_statusclassification status

Status of the scientific classification, e.g. disputed. Only use when the scientific classification text would be misleading without it.

Stringoptional
Subdivision rankssubdivision_rankssubdivision ranks

Rank used for sub-divisions of this taxa, e.g. 'Families'

Stringoptional
Subdivisionsubdivision

List of sub divisions of this taxa, e.g. [[Family1]]<br/> [[Family2]]<br/> [[Family3]]

Stringoptional
Image 2image2

A second image, only use in rare circumstances.

Stringoptional
Image 2 Widthimage2_widthimage2 width

Width of the second image

Numberoptional
Image 2 alt textimage2_altimage2 alt

Alt text which describes the second image to someone who can't see it

Stringoptional
Image 2 captionimage2_captionimage2 caption

Caption to display under the second image

Stringoptional
Binomial2binomial2

Second binomial name of taxa, only used in rare circumstances

Stringoptional
Binomial authority 2binomial2_authoritybinomial2 authority

Authority of second binomial

Stringoptional
Binomial3binomial3

Third binomial name of taxa, only used in rare circumstances

Stringoptional
Binomial authority 3binomial3_authoritybinomial3 authority

Authority of third binomial

Stringoptional
Binomial4binomial4

Forth binomial name of taxa, only used in rare circumstances

Stringoptional
Binomial authority 4binomial4_authoritybinomial4 authority

Authority of forth binomial

Stringoptional
Range map 2range_map2range map2

Second map of range

Stringoptional
Range map 2 widthrange_map2_widthrange map2 width

Width of second range map

Stringoptional
Range map 2 alt textrange_map2_altrange map2 alt

Alt text describing the second range map

Stringoptional
Range map 2 captionrange_map2_captionrange map2 caption

Caption/key for the second range map

Stringoptional
Range map 3range_map3range map3

Third map of range

Stringoptional
Range map 3 widthrange_map3_widthrange map3 width

Width of third range map

Stringoptional
Range map 3 alt textrange_map3_altrange map3 alt

Alt text describing the third range map

Stringoptional
Range map 3 captionrange_map3_captionrange map3 caption

Caption/key for the third range map

Stringoptional
Range map 4range_map4range map4

Forth map of range

Stringoptional
Range map 4 widthrange_map4_widthrange map4 width

Width of forth range map

Stringoptional
Range map 4 alt textrange_map4_altrange map4 alt

Alt text describing the forth range map

Stringoptional
Range map 4 captionrange_map4_captionrange map4 caption

Caption/key for the forth range map

Stringoptional
colorcolor

Generally not used as it is automatically assigned based on the entry for regnum, virus_group, unranked_phylum, phylum.

Stringoptional

See also[вироиш]

Notes[вироиш]

  1. If the page is called, for example, "Homo (genus)", then the taxobox will display "Homo" and the page title "Homo (genus)".
  2. See note 1; the title of the page will be italicized using the {{DISPLAYTITLE}} magic word. When the page name contains the disambiguator "(alga)" or "(genus)", this disambiguator will not be italicized (e.g., Ia (genus)).
Диморфизми ҷинсии косахонаи сар

Горилла, маймуни тануманде аз оилаи маймунҳои одамшакли гурухи приматхо. Кадаш то 175 см, вазнаш 135-180 кг(нараш). Сараш калону устухони абруяш барчаста аст.Дасташ назар ба пояш дароз - 2.6 м (Дастҳои ёзидааш). 25 - 30 сол умр мебинад. Мухлати хомила аз 250 то 290 рӯз.