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Шаблон:Islam

Шаблон:Prophets, salaf and caliphs The Qur'an identifies a number of men as Prophets of Islam (Arabic: nabee نبي ; pl. anbiyaa أنبياء ). Muslims believe such individuals were assigned a special mission by God (Arabic: Allah) to guide humanity. Besides Muhammad, this includes other Abrahamic prophets such as Moses and Jesus.

According to the Islamic creed, the essence of all the prophets’ (Arabic: nabee نبي ; pl. anbiyaa أنبياء ) messages is what Islam calls for: worshipping Allah alone and rejecting false deities. Islam is the religion of all prophets in human history ; all of them called for what Islam calls for, and so they declared belief in Islam. The message of Islam resembles the messages of all previous prophets of Allah. The Qur'an states: "Ibrahim was not a Jew nor a Christian, but he was (an) upright (man), a Muslim, and he was not one of the polytheists" (Шаблон:Quran-usc). Each of the prophets is believed to have been assigned a special mission by God (Arabic: Allah) to guide the whole or a group of the mankind, depending on the mission assigned to each.

Almighty Allah (God) is believed to have instructed each of these prophets to warn his community against evil and urge his people to obey Allah. Although only 25 prophets are mentioned by name in the Qur'an, a Hadith (no. 21257 in Musnad Ibn Hanbal) mentions that there were 124,000 of them in total throughout history, and the Qur'an says that Allah has sent a prophet to every group of people throughout time, and that Muhammad is the last of the Prophets.(Шаблон:Quran-usc) In general, Muslims regard the stories of the Qur'an as historical. The message of all the prophets is believed to be the same. Many of these prophets are also found in the holy texts of Judaism (The Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings; collectively known as the Old Testament to Christians) and Christianity. [1]

Only a tiny minority are believed to have been sent holy books (such as the Tawrat, Zabur, Injil and the Qur'an), and those prophets are considered "messengers" or rasūl. Muhammad is regarded in Islamic belief as having undertaken a prophetic mission addressed to all of humanity rather than a specific populace, although both Adam and Nuh did indeed address all of humanity during their prophethood. Muslims believe in all the prophets (nabi) and in all messengers (rasul) sent by Allah. Some are held to be of high esteem (ulul azmi) and are mentioned by name in the Qur'an. The difference between prophets and messengers is that although all received revelation (wahi) from Allah, the messengers received a divine code of life or "Sharia" ultimately collected together in the form of a holy book.

The first prophet is Adam, while the last prophet is Muhammad, thus his title Seal of the Prophets. Jesus is the result of a virgin birth in Islam as in Christianity, and is regarded as a prophet like the others, and as the Messiah.[2] Traditionally, five prophets are regarded as especially important in Islam: Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus) and Muhammad. Although it offers many incidents from the lives of many prophets, the Qur'an focuses with special narrative and rhetorical emphasis on the careers of the first four of these five major prophets. Of all the figures before Muhammad, Moses is referred to most frequently in the Qur'an. (As for the fifth, the Qur'an is frequently addressed directly to Muhammad, and it often discusses situations encountered by him. Direct use of his name in the text, however, is rare.)

Prophets in the Qur'an[вироиш]

The following are named as prophets in the Qur'an; their biblical names are given in parentheses.

Одам آدم[вироиш]

Одам якум аз пайамбарони Ислом ва якум инсон. Ӯро Оллоҳ офаридааст, аммо баъд аз 40 рӯзи нигоҳ доштан монанди тани хушк оварда шудааст. Вай шахси муҳим ҳам дар Иудаизм ва Христиани мебошад вa барои he is best known for the story of Adam and Eve.

Idris (Enoch) ادريس[вироиш]

In Islam, Idris lived during a period of drought inflicted by Allah to punish the people of the world who had forgotten him. Idris prayed to Allah for salvation and an end to the suffering and so the world received rain. Idris is also credited in Islam with introducing writing, astronomy, and mathematics.

Nuh (Noah) نوح[вироиш]

Although best known for the Deluge, Nuh was a primary preacher of monotheism at his time. According to Islamic tradition, it was this faithfulness to Allah that led to his selection for building the Ark that would continue life on Earth. In contrast with Christian and Jewish traditions which say the Deluge was a global event, there is some difference in opinion in Islam over whether the flood associated with Nuh was localized or global.

Hud (Heber) هود[вироиш]

According to Islam, Hud, for whom the eleventh sura of the Qur'an is named, was one of the few people to survive a great storm inflicted by Allah, like with the Deluge five generations earlier, to punish the people of the world who had forgotten about Allah.

Saleh (Shelah) صالح[вироиш]

According to the Qur'an, Saleh was ordered by Allah to leave behind his people after they disobeyed Allah's order to care for a special camel and instead killed it. In Saleh's absence, Allah punished the people with a large earthquake.

Ibrahim (Abraham) إبراهيم[вироиш]

Ibrahim is regarded by Muslims today as one of the significant prophets as he is credited with building the Kaaba in Makkah. His family, including his son Ismail, is also credited with helping create the civilization around Makkah that would later give birth to the final prophet of Islam, Muhammad. Ibrahim is also noted for almost sacrificing his son Ismail for Allah in an event now commemorated annually by Eid ul-Adha.

Lut (Lot) لوط[вироиш]

Lut is most notable in Islam for attempting to preach against homosexuality in Sodom and Gomorra, only to be mocked and ignored by the people who lived there.

Ismail (Ishmael) اسماعيل[вироиш]

Ismail, first-born son of Ibrahim, is a notable prophet in Islam for his near-sacrifice in adulthood. According to Islamic tradition, as a child he and his mother Hagar's search for water in the region around Makkah led Allah to reveal the Zamzam Well which still flows to this day.

Ishaq (Isaac) اسحاق[вироиш]

According to Islamic tradition, Ishaq, second-born son of Ibrahim, became a prophet in Canaan. He, along with his brother Ismail, carried on the legacy of Ibrahim as prophets of Islam.

Yaqub (Jacob) يعقوب[вироиш]

Yaqub, according to the Qur'an was "of the company of the Elect and the Good"[3] and he continued the legacy of both his father, Ishaq, and his grandfather, Ibrahim. Like his ancestors, he was committed to worshipping one Allah.

Yusuf (Joseph) يوسف[вироиш]

Yusuf, son of Yaqub and great-grandson of Ibrahim, became a prominent advisor to the pharaoh of Egypt since he was believed to have seen a dream that predicted the economic state of Egypt. He spent a large part of his life away from his eleven brothers, who, jealous of Yusuf's success, told their father Yaqub that Yusuf had died.

Ayub (Job) أيوب[вироиш]

According to Islamic tradition, Ayyub was rewarded by a fountain of youth, which removed all illnesses except death, for his service to Allah in his hometown outside Al Majdal. Ayub is believed to have suffered an illness for 18 years as a patience test by God.

Shoaib (Jethro) شعيب[вироиш]

Shoaib was a direct descendant of Ibrahim. According to Islam, he was appointed by Allah to guide the people of Midyan and Aykah, who lived near Mount Sinai. When the people of the region failed to listen to his warnings, Allah destroyed the disbeliever's villages.

Musa (Moses) موسى[вироиш]

Musa, referred to in the Qur'an more than any other prophet, is significant for revealing the Tawrat to the Egyptians. The Qur'an says Musa realized his connection with Allah after receiving commands from him during a stop at Mount Sinai. He later went on to free the enslaved Hebrews after failing to convince the Egyptian pharaoh of Allah's power. Musa subsequently led the freed Hebrews for forty years through the desert on a long attempt to capture Canaan, the Promised Land. During this long journey, Musa received the Tawrat and the Ten Commandments during another trip to Mount Sinai. At the end of his life, according to Islamic tradition, Musa chose to die to be closer to Allah instead of taking an offer that would have extended his life.

Harun (Aaron) هارون[вироиш]

Harun served as an assistant to his elder brother Musa. In Islam, he, like Musa, was given the task of saving the Israelites from the Egyptian pharaoh. He would often speak for Musa when Musa’s speech impediment prevented him from doing so himself

Dhul-Kifl (possibly Ezekiel) ذو الكفل[вироиш]

The status of Dhul-Kifl as a prophet is debatable within Islam, although both sides can agree that he was indeed a righteous man who strived in the way of Allah.

Dawood (David) داوود[вироиш]

In Islam, the Zabur (equated by some with the Psalms) were revealed to Daud by Allah. He is also significant as he is the one who defeated Goliath.

Sulayman (Solomon) سليمان[вироиш]

Sulayman learned a significant amount from his father Daud before being made a prophet by Allah. According to Islamic tradition, Sulayman was given power over all things, including the jinns. Known for his honesty and fairness, he also led a kingdom that extended into southern Arabia.

Ilyas (Elijah) إلياس[вироиш]

Ilyas, descendant of Harun, took over control of the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula after Sulayman's kingdom collapsed. Islamic tradition says he attempted to convince the people of the Peninsula of the existence of only one god, but when the people refused to listen they were smitten with a drought and famine.

Al-Yasa (Elisha) اليسع[вироиш]

Al-Yasa took over the job of leading the Israelites after Ilyas' death. He attempted to show the king and queen of Israel the powers of Allah, but was dismissed as a magician. Subsequently, the Assyrians were able to conquer the Israelites and inflict significant damage on them.

Yunus (Jonah) يونس[вироиш]

Islamic tradition shows that Yunus was commanded by Allah to help the people of Nineveh towards righteousness. However, after Nineveh's people refused to listen to God, he became disgruntled and started to ignore him. After an incident where Yunus was spared death, he decided to re-commit himself to striving for Allah, attempting to lead the people of Nineveh to righteousness. But after returning to evil, illicit ways, the Scythians conquered them.[4]

Zakariya (Zacharias) زكريا[вироиш]

A descendant of Sulayman, Zakariya was a patron of Maryam, mother of Isa. According to the Quran, he prayed to Allah asking for a son, since his sterile wife al-Yashbi could not provide one. Allah granted his wishes, temporarily lifting his wife's sterility and allowing her to give birth to Yahya.[5]

Yahya (John the Baptist) يحيى[вироиш]

Islam says that, throughout his lifetime, Yahya captivated audiences with his powerful sermons that preached monotheism.

Isa (Jesus) عيسى[вироиш]

Мақолаи асосӣ: Islamic view of Jesus

One of the highest ranked prophets in Islam, Isa was sent to guide the Children of Israel. The Qur'an makes it very clear that in Islam, Isa is not the son of Allah, as Christianity teaches, but rather a prophet of Allah. He was able to perform many miracles, even raising the dead. Islamic traditions states that he abstained from drinking alcohol. It also states that he received a revelation, the Injil, though its details are lost. Muslims believe that Jesus was not crucified on the cross, but is in heaven, waiting to return after the Imam Mahdi and will defeat the Dajjal.

Muhammad محمّد[вироиш]

Muhammad is the most revered prophet in Islam and the only one who does not exist in either Judaism nor Christianity. Born in Makkah in 570 AD, Muhammad spent the first part of his life as a well-travelled merchant. He would often spend his time in the mountains surrounding Makkah in prayer contemplating the situation with the city. At the age of forty, during one of those trips to the mountain, Muhammad began to, despite his illiteracy, receive and recite verses from Allah which today make up the Qur'an. He quickly spred the message he was receiving, converting a few others in the city, including his wife. He claimed to be the last (seal) of the prophets with a message to all humanity. When oppression become untolerable for his followers, Mohammed first asked his fellow muslims to migrate to Medina and later himself migrated to Medina away from the oppressors in Makkah. Muhammad served not just as a prophet, but as a military leader who helped defeat the Makkans in 624 during the Battle of Badr. He continued to lead the Muslims spreading Islam across the Arabian Peninsula. He performed the first hajj in 629 and established the form of Islam, with its five pillars still practiced by Muslims today. Others continued Muhammad's legacy after his death in 629 proclaiming themselves as caliphs (or successors) to Muhammad.

Other possible prophets[вироиш]

The following verses open up possibilities for prophets other than those mentioned in the Qur’an:

  • "And certainly We sent messengers before you: there are some of them that We have mentioned to you and there are others whom We have not mentioned to you..." [40:78]
  • "For We assuredly sent amongst every People a messenger..."[16:36]

The verses open up debate, and there is no strong consensus as to the other authentic Prophets.

Al-Khidr is not mentioned by name, but is traditionally assumed to be referred to in Qur'an 18:66.

Biblical prophets Danyal (Daniel) and Ishaia (Isaiah) are not mentioned in Qur'an but often revered as prophets.

Luqman is mentioned in the sura named after him but it is unclear whether he is a prophet or a wali.

Additional numerous historical figures may have been prophets, but this is a source of debate and contention, among them: Zoroaster, Gautama Buddha and Krishna. However, Muslims will state that there is no way of knowing for sure since they are not mentioned by name in the Qur'an. An argument often used in support of the prophethood of such men is that they came with the word of Allah, but it was later corrupted, this accounting for the differences between Islam, and the respective religions with which each man is associated. The Hadith and Qur’an support such claims that say that a messenger was sent to every people.

Mary the mother of Jesus is not normally regarded as a prophetess, but is regarded as having been sent a message from Allah via an angel. A few scholars (e.g. Ibn Hazm) have argued that she was a prophetess, but she is not mentioned in the Qur'an as one, and thus it cannot be definitely established if she is or isn't. The majority position among Islamic scholars is that no woman has received a prophetic mission from Allah.

See also[вироиш]

References[вироиш]

  1. The Bible; containing both the Old and New Testaments (see Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'an)
  2. see the Qur'an Шаблон:Quran-usc
  3. Yusuf Ali's translation of the Qur'an, Шаблон:Quran-usc
  4. "Prophet Yunus ". The Prophets . Islam101.com. http://www.islam101.com/history/people/prophets/jonah.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-06. 
  5. "Prophet Zakariya ". The Prophets . Islam101.com. http://www.islam101.com/history/people/prophets/zakariya.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-06.