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Дигар роҳҳоимаврди истифода Вашингтон Ҳавзаи Колумбия,
Washington is a state in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The state is named after George Washington, the first President of the United States. As of the 2000 census, the state population was approximately 5.9 million and the state work force numbered about 3.1 million. Residents are called "Washingtonians" (emphasis on the third syllable, pronounced as tone).
It should not be confused with Washington, D.C., the nation's capital city. To avoid confusion, the city is often called simply D.C. and the state is often called Washington state.
- 1 Ҷуғрофия
- 2 Таърих
- 3 Демография
- 4 Economy
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Law and government
- 7 Important cities and towns
- 8 Education
- 9 Professional sports teams
- 10 Miscellaneous topics
- 11 Боз нигаред
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Шаблон:Ussm Washington is bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west; Oregon to the south (the Columbia River forming most of this border); Idaho to the east and British Columbia, Canada to the north. It is famous for scenery of breathtaking beauty and sharp contrasts. High mountains rise above evergreen forests and sparkling coastal waters. Its coastal location and Puget Sound harbors give it a leading role in trade with Alaska, Canada, and the Pacific Rim. Puget Sound's many islands are served by the largest ferry fleet in the United States.
Washington is a land of contrasts. The deep forests of the Olympic Peninsula are among the rainiest places in the world and the only rainforests (such as the Hoh Rain Forest) in the continental United States, but the flat semi-desert that lies east of the Cascade Range stretches for long distances without a single tree. Snow-covered peaks tower above the foothills and lowlands around them. Mount Rainier, the highest mountain in the state, appears to "float" on the horizon southeast of Seattle and Tacoma on clear days. The eastern side of the state can be divided into two regions: the Okanogan Highlands and the Columbia River Basin.
Areas under the management of the National Park Service include:
- Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve near Coupeville
- Fort Vancouver National Historic Site at Vancouver
- Klondike Gold Rush Seattle Unit National Historical Park in Seattle
- Lake Chelan National Recreation Area near Stehekin
- Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area along the Columbia River
- Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
- Mount Rainier National Park
- Nez Perce National Historical Park
- North Cascades National Park near Marblemount
- Olympic National Park at Port Angeles
- Ross Lake National Recreation Area at Newhalem
- San Juan Island National Historical Park in Friday Harbor
- Whitman Mission National Historic Site at Walla Walla
- Puget Sound
- San Juan Islands
- Columbia River
- Snake River
- Yakima River
- Cascade Range
- Olympic Mountains
Prior to the arrival of explorers from Europe, this region of the Pacific Coast had many established tribes of Native Americans, each with its own unique culture. Today, they are most notable for their totem poles and their ornately carved canoes and masks. Prominent among their industries were salmon fishing and whale hunting. In the east, nomadic tribes traveled the land and missionaries such as the Whitmans settled there.
The first European record of a landing on the Washington coast was by Spanish Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in 1775, on board the Santiago, part of a two-ship flotilla with the Sonora. They claimed all the coastal lands up to the Russian possessions in the north for Spain.
In 1778, British explorer Captain James Cook sighted Cape Flattery, at the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, but the straits would not be explored until 1789, by Captain Charles W. Barkley. Further explorations of the straits were performed by Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper in 1790 and Francisco de Eliza in 1791, then by British Captain George Vancouver in 1792.
The Spanish Nootka Convention of 1790 opened the northwest territory to explorers and trappers from other nations, most notably Britain and then the United States. Captain Robert Gray (for whom Grays Harbor county is named) then discovered the mouth of the Columbia River. He named the river after his ship, the Columbia. Beginning in 1792, Gray established trade in sea otter pelts. The Lewis and Clark expedition entered the state on October 10, 1805.
In 1819, Spain ceded their original claims to this territory to the United States. This began a period of disputed joint-occupancy by Britain and the U.S. that lasted until June 15, 1846, when Britain ceded their claims to this land with the Treaty of Oregon.
Because of the overland migration along the Oregon Trail, many settlers wandered north to what is now Washington and settled the Puget Sound area. The first settlement was New Market (now known as Tumwater) in 1846. In 1853, Washington Territory was formed from part of Oregon Territory.
Early prominent industries in the state included agriculture and lumber. In eastern Washington, the Yakima Valley became known for its apple orchards, while the growth of wheat using dry-farming techniques became particularly productive. The heavy rainfall to the west of the Cascade Range produced dense forests, and the ports along Puget Sound prospered from the manufacturing and shipping of lumber products, particularly the Douglas fir. Other industries that developed in the state include fishing, salmon canning and mining.
By the turn of the 20th century, Washington was of dangerous repute in the minds of many Americans. Indisputably as "wild" as the rest of the American Old West, the public image of Washington merely replaced cowboys with lumberjacks, and desert with forestland. One city in particular, Aberdeen, had the distinction of being "the roughest town west of the Mississippi" because of excessive gambling, violence, extreme drug use and prostitution (the city itself changed very little over the years and remained off-limits to military personnel well into the early 1980s).
For a long period, Tacoma was noted for its large smelters where gold, silver, copper and lead ores were treated. Seattle was the primary port for trade with Alaska and the rest of the country, and for a time it possessed a large ship-building industry. The region around eastern Puget Sound developed heavy industry during the period including World War I and World War II, and the Boeing company became an established icon in the area.
During the Great Depression, a series of hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia river as part of a project to increase the production of electricity. This culminated in 1941 with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam, the largest dam in the United States.
During World War II, the Puget Sound area became a focus for war industries, with the Boeing Company producing many of the nation's heavy bombers and ports in Seattle, Bremerton, and Tacoma were available for the manufacture of warships. Seattle was the point of departure for many soldiers in the Pacific, a number of which were quartered at Golden Gardens Park. In eastern Washington, the Hanford Works atomic energy plant was opened in 1943 and played a major role in the construction of the nation's atomic bombs.
On May 18, 1980, following a period of heavy tremors and eruptions, the northeast face of Mount St. Helens exploded outward, destroying a large part of the top of the volcano. This eruption flattened the forests, killed 57 people, flooded the Columbia River and its tributaries with ash and mud, and blanketed large parts of Washington in ash, making day look like night.
According to the U.S. Census as of 2005, Washington has an estimated population of 6,287,759, which is an increase of 80,713, or 1.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 393,619, or 6.7%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 180,160 people (that is 418,055 births minus 237,895 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 215,216 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 134,242 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 80,974 people.
As of 2004, Washington's population included 631,500 foreign-born (10.3% of the state population), and an estimated 100,000 illegal aliens (1.6% of state population).
Race and ancestry[вироиш]
The racial/ethnic makeup of the state:
- 77.0% White, not of Hispanic ancestry
- 8.0% Hispanic of any race
- 6.3% Asian
- 4.0% Two or more races
- 3.0% Black
- 1.6% Native American
There are many migrant Mexican farm workers living in the southeast-central part of the state. Wahkiakum County, as well as most counties in the state, has many residents of Scandinavian origin. Washington has the fifth largest Asian population of any state, with Chinese and Fillipino being the largest groups.
6.7% of Washington's population was reported as under 5, 25.7% under 18, and 11.2% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.2% of the population.
The religious affiliations of Washington's population are:
- Christian – 66%
- Other Religions – 2%
- Non-Religious – 27%
As with many other Western states, the percentage of Washington's population identifying themselves as "non-religious" is higher than the national average. The percentage of non-religious people in Washington is the highest of any state.
The 2004 total gross state product for Washington was $262 billion, placing it 14th in the nation. The per capita income was $33,332. Significant business within the state include the design and manufacture of jet aircraft (Boeing), computer software development (Microsoft, Amazon.com, Nintendo of America), electronics, biotechnology, aluminum production, lumber and wood products, mining, and tourism. The state has significant amounts of hydroelectric power generation. Significant amounts of trade with Asia pass through the ports of the Puget Sound. See list of United States companies by state.
The state of Washington is one of only seven states that does not levy a personal income tax. Neither does the state collect a corporate income tax. However, Washington businesses are responsible for various other state levies. Washington's state sales tax is 7.9 percent, and it applies to services as well as products. Most foods are exempt from sales tax; however, prepared foods, dietary supplements and soft drinks remain taxable. The combined state and local retail sales tax rates increase the taxes paid by consumers, depending on the variable local sales tax rates, generally between 8 and 9 percent. An excise tax applies to certain select products such as gasoline, cigarettes, and alcoholic beverages. Property tax was the first tax levied in the state of Washington and its collection accounts for about 30 percent of Washington's total state and local revenue. It continues to be the most important revenue source for public schools, fire protection, library, park and recreation, and other special purpose districts.
All real and personal property is subject to tax unless specifically exempted by law. Personal property also is taxed, although most personal property owned by individuals is exempt. Personal property tax applies to personal property used when conducting business or to other personal property not exempt by law. All property taxes are paid to the county treasurer's office where the property is located. Washington does not impose a tax on intangible assets such as bank accounts, stocks or bonds. Neither does the state assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Washington does not collect inheritance taxes; however, the estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws, and therefore the state imposes its own estate tax.
For 2003, the total value of Washington's agricultural products was $5.79 billion, the 11th highest in the country. The total value of its crops was $3.8 billion, the 7th highest. The total value of its livestock and specialty products was $1.5 billion, the 26th highest.
In 2004, Washington ranked first in the nation in production of red raspberries (90.0% of total U.S. production), wrinkled seed peas (80.6%), hops (75.0%), spearmint oil (73.6%), apples (58.1%), sweet cherries (47.3%), pears (42.6%), peppermint oil (40.3%), Concord grapes (39.3%), carrots for processing (36.8%), and Niagara grapes (31.6%). Washington also ranked second in the nation in production of lentils, fall potatoes, dry edible peas, apricots, grapes (all varieties taken together), asparagus (over a third of the nation's production), sweet corn for processing, and green peas for processing; third in tart cherries, prunes and plums, and dry summer onions; fourth in barley and trout; and fifth in wheat, cranberries, and strawberries.
Washington has an extensive system of state highways, called State Routes, as well as the third-largest ferry system in the world. There are 140 public airfields in Washington, including 16 state airports owned by the Washington State Department of Transportation. Boeing Field in Seattle is the busiest airport by numbers of planes in the world. The unique geography of Washington presents exceptional transportation needs.
There are extensive waterways in the midst of Washington's largest cites, including Seattle, Bellevue, Tacoma and Olympia. The state highways incorporate an extensive network of bridges and the largest ferry system in the United States to serve transpiration needs in the Puget Sound area. Washington's marine highway constitutes a fleet of twenty-eight ferries that navigate Puget Sound and its inland waterways to 20 different ports of call. Washington is home for the five longest floating bridges in the world: the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and Homer M. Hadley Bridge over Lake Washington, and the Hood Canal Bridge connecting the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas.
The Cascade Mountain Range also provides unique transportation challenges. Washington operates and maintains 7 major mountain passes and 8 minor passes. During winter months these passes are plowed, sanded, and kept safe with avalanche control. Not all are able to stay open through the winter. The North Cascades Highway on State Route 20 closes every year. Because of the extraordinary amount of snowfall and frequency of avalanches the highway is not safe in the winter months.
Law and government[вироиш]
Washington has 49 Legislative Districts, and elects one senator and two house members from each district. The majority party is the Democratic Party. Washington state senators and representatives are elected for four year and two year terms, respectively. There are no term limits.
The Washington Supreme Court is the highest court in the judiciary of the state of Washington. Nine justices serve on the bench, and are elected at large.
The U.S. Congress[вироиш]
Washington representatives in the United States House of Representatives are Jay Inslee (D-1), Richard Ray (Rick) Larsen (D-2), Brian Baird (D-3), Richard Norman "Doc" Hastings (R-4), Cathy McMorris (R-5), Norm Dicks (D-6), Jim McDermott (D-7), David Reichert (R-8), and Adam Smith (D-9).
State elected officials[вироиш]
- Christine Gregoire, Governor (D)
- Brad Owen, Lieutenant Governor (D)
- Sam Reed, Secretary of State (R)
- Rob McKenna, Attorney General (R)
- Mike Murphy, Treasurer (D)
- Brian Sonntag, Auditor (D)
- Terry Bergeson, Superintendent of Public Instruction (non partisan office)
- Doug Sutherland,Commissioner of Public Lands (R)
- Mike Kreidler, Insurance Commissioner (D)
- Washington Legislature
- Currently the Democratic Party is in control of both the House and the Senate.
The state has been thought of as politically divided by the Cascade Mountains, with Western Washington being liberal (particularly greater Seattle) and Eastern Washington being conservative. Since the population is larger in the west, the Democrats usually fare better statewide. Washington has voted for the Democratic candidate in presidential elections recently in 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000 and 2004. It was considered a key swing state in 1968 and 2000. In 1968, it was the only Western state to give its electoral votes to Hubert Humphrey.
While the Democratic Party has long dominated Washington, the 2004 Washington gubernatorial election was among the closest races in United States election history. The initial count as well as the first recount, conducted by machine, both showed Dino Rossi, the Republican candidate, winning the election. A second recount was done by hand, overturning the initial results when it resulted in a lead for Christine Gregoire, the Democratic candidate, of 129 votes, or 0.0045% of those cast. As this second recount was the last allowed for by Washington election law, Gregoire was inaugurated on 12 January 2005. The subsequent court battles raged for months after the election, but ultimately ended with Gregoire retaining her office. The final official count left Gregoire ahead by 133 votes.
Washington has the distinction for being the first and so far only state to elect women to all three major statewide offices (state governor and two U.S. Senate seats) at the same time.
On January 30, 2006 Governor Christine Gregoire signed into law legislation making Washington the 17th state in the nation to protect gay and lesbian people from discrimination in housing, lending, and employment, and the 7th state in the nation to offer these protections to transgendered people. Initiative activist Tim Eyman filed a referendum that same day, seeking to put the issue before the state's voters. Despite a push from conservative churches across the state to gather signatures on what were dubbed "Referendum Sundays," Eyman was only able to gather 105,103 signatures, more than 7,000 signatures short of the minimum. As a result, the law went into effect on June 7, 2006.
See also List of Washington Governors
Important cities and towns[вироиш]
- Spokane Valley
- Federal Way
Colleges and universities[вироиш]
- Central Washington University
- Eastern Washington University
- The Evergreen State College
- University of Washington
- Washington State University
- Western Washington University
Professional sports teams[вироиш]
- Washington state congressional delegates
- Capital punishment in Washington
- List of hospitals in Washington
- List of Washington state prisons
- List of Washington state forests
- List of radio stations in Washington
- List of television stations in Washington
- List of Washington county name etymologies
- List of colleges and universities in Washington
- List of school districts in Washington
- List of ZIP Codes in Washington
- List of high schools in Washington
- List of U.S. Wilderness Areas in Washington
- The Washington Medal of Merit
- Scouting in Washington
- Washington State Park System
- Music of Washington
- List of people from Washington
- List of United States companies by state